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Prior exposure to oxytocin mimics the effects of social contact and facilitates sexual behaviour in females

Power of love_1_300The purpose of this study was to determine whether pretreatment with oxytocin could mimic the effects of social contact and enhance sexual receptivity in female prairie voles. Female prairie voles require prolonged exposure to males to become sexually active and oxytocin has been shown to play a major role in the establishment of social bonds between males and females. Therefore, we hypothesized that prior exposure to exogenous oxytocin, in the absence of males, would enhance sexual activity in females. Two experiments were conducted to test this hypothesis. Experiment 1 examined the capacity of oxytocin to enhance sexual behaviour in females undergoing natural oestrus. Sexually naive female prairie voles Power of love_2received a daily subcutaneous injection of 20 microg oxytocin or isotonic saline for 5 days before being placed with a sexually experienced male for 48 h. Females treated with oxytocin were significantly more likely to mate during this period than saline-treated females. In experiment 2 the ability of oxytocin to increase subsequent sensitivity of sexually naive females to oestradiol was tested. Females that received oxytocin pretreatment, as in experiment 1, followed by oestradiol displayed a significant increase in sexual receptivity when compared to females treated with saline and oestradiol or oestradiol only. The results supported the hypothesis that prior exposure to oxytocin can mimic the effects of social contact, and can facilitate sexual receptivity by increasing the sensitivity of females to very low doses of oestradiol.

Cushing BS, Carter CS.
Department of Biology,
University of Maryland, College Park,
MD 20742, USA.
bc83@umail:umd.edu
J Neuroendocrinol 1999 Oct;11(10):765-9

Oxytocin is an FDA controlled substance!

Click here to read about a sublingual Homeopatic

formulation designed to enable the body to release and  Accelerate its own Natural Oxytocin.

 
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August 6, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | Leave a comment

Oxytocin may mediate the benefits of positive social interaction and emotions

Emotions_1_300During breastfeeding or suckling, maternal oxytocin levels are raised by somatosensory stimulation. Oxytocin may, however, also be released by nonnoxious stimuli such as touch, warm temperature etc. in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, oxytocin may be involved in physiological and behavioral effects induced by social interaction in a more general context. In both male and female rats oxytocin exerts potent physiological antistress effects. If daily oxytocin injections are repeated over a 5-day period, blood pressure is decreased by 10-20 mmHg, the withdrawal latency to heat stimuli is prolonged, cortisol levels are decreased and insulin and cholecystokinin levels are increased. These effects last from 1 to several weeks after the last injection. After repeated oxytocin treatment weight gain may be promoted and the healing rate of Emotions_2_300wounds increased. Most behavioral and physiological effects induced by oxytocin can be blocked by oxytocin antagonists. In contrast, the antistress effects can not, suggesting that unidentified oxytocin receptors may exist. The prolonged latency in the tail-flick test can be temporarily reversed by administration of naloxone, suggesting that endogenous opioid activity has been increased by the oxytocin injections. In contrast, the long-term lowering of blood pressure and of cortisol levels as well as the sedative effects of oxytocin have been found to be related to an increased activity of central alpha 2-adrenoceptors. Positive social interactions have been related to health-promoting effects. Oxytocin released in response to social stimuli may be part of a neuroendocrine substrate which underlies the benefits of positive social experiences. Such processes may in addition explain the health-promoting effects of certain alternative therapies. Because of the special properties of oxytocin, including the fact that it can become conditioned to psychological state or imagery, oxytocin may also mediate the benefits attributed to therapies such as hypnosis or meditation.

Uvnas-Moberg K
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology,
Karolinska Institute,
Stockholm, Sweden.
kerstin.uvnas-moberg@fyka.ki.se
Psychoneuroendocrinology 1998 Nov; 23(8):819-35

Oxytocin is an FDA controlled substance!

Click here to read about a sublingual Homeopatic formulation designed to enable the body to release and Accelerate its own Natural Oxytocin.
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August 6, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Role of oxytocin in the neuroadaptation

Neuroadaptation_1_300Oxytocin (OXT), a neurohypophyseal hormone, has a wide range of behavioral effects outside its classic peripheral endocrine functions. OXT involvement in adaptive central nervous system processes has been demonstrated as an inhibitory, amnestic action on learning and memory in different paradigms. Because adaptation and learning are likely to be involved in the neural events leading to drug tolerance and dependence, the question logically arose whether OXT is able to influence the development of tolerance of and dependence on abused drugs. In this review, we summarize our results on the effects of OXT on opiate (including morphine, heroin, and the endogenous opiates beta-endorphin and enkephalin) tolerance and dependence, heroin self-administration, psychostimulant-induced behavioral changes, and behavioral tolerance and sensitization. The sites and mechanisms of action and the possible physiological role of OXT are also discussed. In the first part of this review the Neuroadaptation_2effects of exogenously administered OXT on both the acute and chronic behavioral effects of opiates and psychostimulants have been summarized. OXT inhibited the development of tolerance to morphine, heroin, beta-endorphin, and enkephalin, OXT also inhibited the development of cross-tolerance between the predominantly mu-agonist heroin and the predominantly delta-agonist enkephalin in mice. Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome was also attenuated by OXT. Heroin self-administration was decreased by OXT administration in heroin-tolerant rats. OXT inhibited cocaine-induced exploratory activity, locomotor hyperactivity, and stereotyped behavior in rats and in mice. Behavioral tolerance to cocaine was also attenuated by OXT. On the contrary, OXT stimulated the development of behavioral sensitization to cocaine. OXT did not alter the stereotyped behavior induced by amphetamine. In the second series of experiments, the sites of action of OXT on drug-related behavior were investigated. Intracerebro-ventricular (ICV) and intracerebral (IC) administration of an OXT-receptor antagonist inhibited the effects of peripherally administered OXT on morphine tolerance, heroin self-administration, and cocaine-induced sniffing behavior. Neuroadaptation_3_300This suggests the central, intracerebral location of OXT target sites. Local IC microinjection of OXT in physiological doses into the posterior olfactory nucleus, tuberculum olfactorium, nucleus accumbens, central amygdaloid nucleus, and the hippocampus inhibited the development of tolerance to and dependence on morphine as well as cocaine-induced sniffing behavior and tolerance to cocaine. The physiological role of endogenous OXT in acute morphine tolerance has also been demonstrated, since OXT antiserum (ICV) and OXT-receptor antagonist (injected into the basal forebrain structures) potentiated the development of morphine tolerance. Finally, we investigated the possible mechanisms of action of OXT on drug related behavior. Both morphine tolerance and dependence, and cocaine administration, increased dopamine utilization in the mesencephalon and in the nucleus accumbens, respectively. OXT treatment decreased the alpha-methylparatyrosine-induced dopamine utilization in the mesencephalon and in the nucleus accumbens-septal complex. Chronic OXT treatment decreased the number of apparent binding sites of dopamine in the basal forebrain area. It also inhibited a cocaine-induced increase in dopamine utilization in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the striatum. In light of this information, it appears that OXT inhibits the development of opiate tolerance, dependence, and self-administration as well as the acute behavioral actions of and chronic tolerance to cocaine. This suggests the possible role of this neuropeptide in the regulation of drug abuse. Therefore, OXT may act as a neuromodulator on dopaminergic neurotransmission in limbic-basal forebrain structures to regulate adaptive CNS processes leading to drug addiction.

Sarnyai Z, Kovacs GL
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Center,
Harvard Medical School-McLean Hospital,
Belmont, MA 02178, USA.
Psychoneuroendocrinology 1994; 19(1):85-117

Oxytocin is an FDA controlled substance!

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August 6, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | Leave a comment

Research on plasma oxytocin in normal cycling women: investigating emotion and interpersonal distress

Emotion and interperson_1The neurohormone oxytocin is responsible for initiating childbirth and the let-down reflex in lactating women and is released during sexual orgasm. Oxytocin has been thought of as an affiliation hormone because research on nonhuman mammals has demonstrated that it plays a key role in the initiation of maternal behavior and the formation of adult pair bonds. It has been speculated that social stimuli may induce oxytocin release and that oxytocin may make positive social contact more rewarding. Data are presented from an initial study to Emotion and interperson_2examine change in plasma oxytocin in response to a standard imagery task that elicits emotion related to attachment. Twenty-five normal cycling, healthy women underwent imagery tasks and completed questionnaires on attachment and interpersonal problems. Blood draws (5 ml) were bone via an indwelling catheter before, during, and after three interventions (massage, positive emotion, and negative emotion) and to establish baselines. Overall, the data showed a tendency for Emotion and interperson_3oxytocin levels to be elevated in response to relaxation massage and decreased in response to sad emotion. There were individual differences in response to the interventions. Those who showed evidence of increased oxytocin levels for positive emotion and massage and who maintained oxytocin levels during negative emotion were less likely to report interpersonal problems associated with intrusiveness. Maintaining oxytocin levels during sadness was also correlated with lower anxiety in close relationships. Women who were in a couple relationship had greater increases in oxytocin in response to positive emotion. In contrast, higher basal levels of oxytocin were associated with greater interpersonal distress. These data suggest that peripheral secretion of oxytocin in response to emotional stimuli is associated with the individual’s interpersonal characteristics.

Turner RA, Altemus M, Enos T, Cooper B, McGuinness T
California School of Professional Psychology,
San Francisco, USA.
beckyt@itsa.ucsf.edu
Psychiatry 1999 Summer; 62(2):97-113

Oxytocin is an FDA controlled substance!

Click here to read about a sublingual Homeopatic formulation designed to enable the body to release and  Accelerate its own Natural Oxytocin.

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August 6, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | Leave a comment

Losing weight with 7 Keto DHEA

Losing weight_1_300Thousands of scientific articles have been published about this powerful hormone’s anti-depression, anti-obesity, anti-carcinogenic, anti-stress, immune-enhancing, anti-viral and anti-bacterial, anti-aging and anti-heart disease effects. DHEA’s reach into the human condition is so penetrating and powerful that it could easily fill books of encyclopedic proportions. One could start anywhere. DHEA research has shown it enhances insulin-like growth factor -1 (IGF-1) release. IGF-1 (formerly called “Somatomedin C”) is the “hidden anabolic power behind the throne” of growth hormone (GH).  The Morales/Yen study found it boosted a 10% rise in serum IGF-1 levels. At the same time it has shown anti cortisol effects. You will recall that cortisol is the stress hormone that causes a build up in the mid section of the body.

Weight-2_300So, why doesn’t everyone of middle age just supplement with DHEA? Though initially it seems to work like a dream, protracted DHEA supplementation eventually goes the opposite way by significantly boosting androgen/estrogen production. (testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione) or estrogens (estrone, estradiol).  This increased androgen levels can potentially cause facial hair, acne, enlarged clitoris, abdominal fat, hyper-glycemia and insulin resistance in women and possibly even decreased testosterone level in men, hardly an ideal situation for either men or women’s health.

Fortunately, a safe, metabolite of DHEA, that does not convert into androgens or estrogens, is available. 7-keto DHEA  (also called “7-oxo DHEA,)” is almost identical in structure to DHEA.  Evaluated in both preclinical studies and human clinical trials for safety 7-keto possesses no mutagenic activity in even massive doses.

7- keto DHEA increases thermogenic enzymes in the liver. It has been demonstrated to increase IL-2 production better than DHEA, in human lymphocytes.  IL-2 is the key cytokine regulator of T-helper cells, which activates the immune system to “go into battle” against invading pathogens.

Losing weight_320x200Most of what is known about the biological effects of 7-keto-DHEA comes from the work of researchers at the University of Wisconsin, led by Henry A. Lardy. Lardy is also a principal in a supplement company, Humanetics Corp., that holds the patents and markets 7-keto. Here is a short list of what we know about how 7-keto would be helpful for people like our friend ED (last chapter, Ed is an acronym for Eating Disorder)

In terms of fat reduction and energy: 7-keto-DHEA decreases the efficiency of energy production in the body meaning that more fats have to be burned to produce the same amount of useable energy. This results in loss of fat. To achieve this result doses of 350 to 1400 mg/day must be used.

Losing weight_3_300Immunity: 7-keto-DHEA treatment caused an increase in anti-viral antibodies to some of the viruses however a proper dosage level has not been determined.

Hormonal effects: 7-keto-DHEA does not metabolize to estrogens or testosterone.

Safety: Humanetics Corp., clinical trials have revealed no safety problems with 7-keto-DHEA used as a supplement at 200 mg/day for 28 days. As a matter of fact the only side effect of very high doses of this substance appears to be excess salivation in monkeys.

Supplementation with 7-keto and a sensible exercise / diet program should result in measurable weight loss and or maintenance.

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July 29, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Summer depress you? You may be suffering from SAD

Summerevening_300For most of us summertime is a good time, a time to “stir it up” out in the sun, with lots of fun-filled activities. For others, it is not the happiest of times. Many people who are experiencing feelings of depression in the summer do not realize they are suffering from summer SAD, (seasonal affective disorder).

This is because they mistakenly perceive their “bouts” as a new event rather than a seasonal pattern. ‘We’ve kind of de-seasonalized ourselves,’ says Dr. Thomas Wehr, a research psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental Health and an expert on both winter and summer SAD. ‘You know, we turn the lights on after dark, we turn the heat on in winter, we turn the air-conditioning on in summer, and you could almost not notice. We tend to think more in a linear way rather than in a cyclic way.’

Summer SAD vs. Winter SAD

Sas in the summerWinter SAD suffers typically feel lethargic in the colder months, crave carbohydrates, gain weight, and sleep excessively. Those afflicted with summer SAD often experience: agitation, loss of appetite, insomnia and, in extreme cases, increased suicidal fantasies.

Epidemiological data in the United States has also shown a higher proportion of SAD suffers experience an elevated nighttime body temperature. To treat this symptom, many summer SAD suffers turn up the air-conditioning. Though this can help it isn’t a universal cure. Others take lots of cold showers, however getting back to sleep isn’t all that easy. As with most forms of depression, more women than men  suffer from summer SAD. One estimate puts it as high as two to one, the highest being women in their reproductive years. One UK woman reportedly swam every day in the English Channel where the cold water gave her measurable relief. I am sure the endorphins released during her exercise regime didn’t hurt either.

Since antidepressants have been shown to lower brain and body temperature in sleep, the most practical defense for summer SAD is still pharmacological.

Stjohnsv2

Depressioncombov2

July 28, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Oxytocin Enhances Memories of Happy Faces

Happy-face_1_300x300A new study scheduled for publication in the August 1st issue of Biological Psychiatry now shows that one way oxytocin promotes social affiliation in humans is by enhancing the encoding of positive social memories. Adam J. Guastella, Ph.D. and his colleagues sought to evaluate the effects of oxytocin on the encoding and recognition of faces in humans. They recruited healthy male volunteers and in a double-blind, randomized design, administered either oxytocin or a placebo. They then presented a series of happy, angry and neutral human faces to the volunteers on a computer screen. Participants returned the following day where they were presented with a collection of faces and asked to distinguish the new faces from ones that they saw on the prior day. The results revealed that those who received oxytocin were more likely to remember the happy faces they had seen previously, more so than the angry and neutral faces.

Happy faces_2_300x225Dr. Guastella notes that the “findings are exciting because they show for the first time that oxytocin facilitates the encoding of positive social information over social information that is either neutral or negative.” John H. Krystal, M.D., Editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System, comments on the findings: “The findings from Guastella and colleagues provide new evidence about a chemical system in the body that may help us to connect socially to other people. One could imagine that our ability to recall a particularly happy face at the end of a day full of social contacts could reflect an action of oxytocin.”

Happy faces_3_300Social isolation is a common psychiatric disorders. The success of oxytocin in enhancing positive social memories raises the possibility that oxytocin can be used to help people who are socially isolated and have difficulty making social connections.

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July 28, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The many faces of Growth Hormone

HghHomeopathic_1_300To be sure, GH has many benefits beyond satiety and reduced fat syntheses. Thierry Hertoghe, M.D., at the Academy of General Medicine of Belgium has verified improvements in cosmetic appearances ranging from wrinkles to gingival shrinking; psychological factors ranging from reduced stress to improved confidence, alleviated depression and general improvements in self-esteem. There is almost no function of the human body that would not be positively improved by the introduction of low-dose homeopathic growth hormone. By low-dose homeopathic I am referring to a basic over the counter treatment protocol that is 100% safe and 1000% more affordable then the high-dose injectable form of HGH. Homeopathic HGH is as gentile as it is powerful in its ability to stimulate metabolic function.

Homeopathy, by definition, encourages the body to clear itself. In contrast allopathic, (modern medicine) artificially and forcefully suppresses symptoms of disease. This is often toxic to the body. Homeopathics use tiny amounts of a substance which encourage the body to bring itself into balance. Actually, homeopathy has two basic levels of potency; for good reason. High concentrations inhibit; medium concentrations suppress; and low or minute concentrations stimulate. The two most common designations for these potencys are decimal potency, denoted by an “X” (10) and the centesimal potency denoted by a “C” (100).

HghHomeopathic_3_300Most homeopathic GH formulations are found in a base of purified water, alcohol, glycerin, lactose or sucrose. These ingredients are combined with growth hormone and succussed, (shaken, preferably by hand) up to 100 times making a 1x potency. Another one part of this potency is then combined with 9 parts of the basic mixture and again successes by hand 100 times for a 2x potency, and so on and so forth.

It is very important that all succession is by hand. Though time consuming, and labor intensive this is the only true homeopathy. There are a lot of products out there from manufacturers using machines and should be avoided. Seccussion by machine does not render a high quality product as the electromagnetic fields, the magnetic energies from the machinery, can penetrate the GH (and the other ingredients) distort their efficacy. According to homeopathic principles, the seccussion process actually makes the GH potent and dynamic, so it is even more bioactive in the body. The homeopathic process actually energizes.

Benefits of homeopathic HGH

HghHomeopathic_2_300Homeopathics are safe and effective.

Because it is secreted by the pituitary gland, GH is not foreign to the body.

Medical studies show that small amounts of GH taken at frequent intervals work better. This is one of the basic principles of homeopathy.

Homeopathic GH does not interfere with other medications.

It is available over the counter; without prescription at a fraction of the price

Homeopathic GH gently encourages the pituitary to release and supplement GH. This balancing act is called homeostasis.

Homeopathic GH products made of liquid are superior as they penetrate faster and more thoroughly over a larger surface area.

The hand seccussion process makes the GH more potent or dynamic. Only use hand seccussed formulations.

HghHomeopathic_4The pituitary gland excretes GH at certain times, (the first 90 minutes of sleep: four am, during heavy exercise). Molecular GH must be injected at certain times to try and mimic the GH pulsing. Since homeopathic GH is serially diluted and potentized at successive levels, it continues to work in the body in a “time release” manner. It doesn’t matter when you take the homeopathic version. People could still get very good results if they wish to take GH at other than the suggested times.

The homeopathic theory of dilution and seccussion teaches that molecules can penetrate the cells more easily.

Top quality homeopathic products are checked for purity both at the beginning and the end of the manufacturing process, thus assuring quality.

Since the inception of homeopathy in the late 1800’s no homeopathic remedy has ever been recalled because it harmed anyone.

Homeopathy is safe, effective and gentile and an FDA ruling in 1938 is a testament to these features. The FDA has no “official opinion on the efficacy of Homeopathics, other than concern with safety, purity, ingredients and claims.

Homeopathic factors seem to continue working in the body even when someone does not take them every day

Over 200 years of research in homeopathy seems to show that it creates gentile, positive chain reactions, which promote general health.

It should be mentioned here that homeopathic growth hormone is not intended for those who have not yet completed their long-bone growth. Most people complete this phase between the ages of 20 and 25, though some not until 30.

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July 25, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Oxytocin and paradise engineering.

Paradise_engineering_300x200Known as oxytocin (not to be confused with the painkiller OxyContin), the naturally occurring hormone is best known for controlling contractions during labor, but it also plays a key role in other fundamental human urges — including the desire to connect with others. “Somehow, the peptide increases trust, or alters the way individuals see each other,” says Tom Insel, director of the National Institute of Mental Health.

Without oxytocin people would be far less inclined to seek social interaction, let alone fall in love and mate for life (or, as scientists call it, “pair bond”). The brain releases gobs of it during orgasm, mothers are awash in it during breastfeeding and, in clinical trials, a spritz of oxytocin has been shown to reduce anxiety, increase feelings of generosity and even ease the symptoms of shyness. Conversely, researchers are beginning to discover that low levels of the hormone — or the body’s faulty response to it — may contribute to severe social dysfunctions like depression and autism.

Paradise_engineering_2Most previous research on oxytocin has focused on animals. (Prairie voles are famous for their oxytocin-inspired behavior: they’re fiercely monogamous lovers and caring parents.) But more recently, scientists have begun to determine how oxytocin functions in the human brain — or, more specifically, how it malfunctions. Studies have shown that people with autism tend to have low levels of oxytocin, as well as hyperactivity in the amygdala, where most oxytocin receptors are located. The amygdala is also where memories are formed, and where our brains process and assign emotional meaning to sensory information — that is, where we turn perception (seeing someone smile) into “neuroception” (understanding the feeling of happiness that the smile reflects), says Stephen Porges, a psychologist at the University of Illinois in Chicago. So, misfirings in the amygdala, in tandem with low oxytocin, may help explain why people with autism have trouble distinguishing between happy expressions and angry ones, making social interaction difficult and unpleasant.

Paradise_engineering_3Early studies of oxytocin’s role in social interaction have yielded some interesting results. In a small 2006 experiment, Dr. Eric Hollander of New York’s Mount Sinai School of Medicine administered synthetic oxytocin and a placebo intravenously to 15 autistic adult patients; afterward, those who received oxytocin were better able to decipher emotions in tone of voice. Moreover, these improvements in social awareness lasted for nearly two weeks. (In 2006, Hollander filed a patent for the use of oxytocin to treat symptoms of autism spectrum disorders; the request is still pending). Investigators at Mount Sinai have also found that oxytocin nasal sprays enhance autistic patients’ ability to interpret facial expressions.

The effects of oxytocin nasal spray are not limited to those with autism either. In studies by Paul Zak, director of the Center for Neuroeconomics Studies in Claremont, Calif., small doses of inhaled oxytocin spray reduced anxiety and wariness of strangers in healthy volunteers; in one trial, the hormone made people feel more generous and trusting with their money.

For the oxytocin-deficient among us, the hormone is commercially available on the Internet. It ought to make love, lust or trust bloom a little faster.That’s not unlike the drug ecstasy, which triggers the release of serotonin, dopamine and oxytocin in the brain and heightens users’ feelings of trust and intimacy, even among complete strangers. Concerns that oxytocin might be similarly abused as a recreational drug seem unfounded. Though oxytocin is something of a wonder compound, it is only one piece of social support. It should be used in conjunction with: massage, talking, or “mind-body,” therapies, like breathing exercises and yoga, which help people cope with their emotions by controlling their body’s physical reaction to stress and fear. Preliminary findings are intriguing, though some oxytocin researchers remain skeptical about the notion of “paradise engineering.”

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July 24, 2008 Posted by | 5-htp, 7-keto, anti-alcohol antioxidant, antidepressants, antioxidants, anxiety, brain antioxidant, carbo blocker, coral calcium, Depression, depression medication, drugs, Healt care, help, hgh patch, hypericum, idebenone, lithium orotate, postpartum, SAMe 400, Siberian Ginseng, St John's wort, teen, treating depression, treatment, treatments, vitamins | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Oxytocin Short-circuits Fear In Humans

Short_circuits_fear_in_HumansOxytocin; a brain chemical recently found to boost trust appears to work by reducing activity and weakening connections in fear-processing circuitry, a brain imaging study at the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has discovered.

Scans of the hormone oxytocin’s effect on human brain function reveal that it quells the brain’s fear hub, the amygdala, and its brainstem relay stations in response to fearful stimuli. The work at NIMH and a collaborating site in Germany suggests new approaches to treating diseases thought to involve amygdala dysfunction and social fear, such as social phobia, autism, and possibly schizophrenia, report Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, M.D., Ph.D., NIMH Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program, and colleagues, in the December 7, 2005 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience.

Short-circuits Fear In Humans_31“Studies in animals, pioneered by now NIMH director Dr. Thomas Insel, have shown that oxytocin plays a key role in complex emotional and social behaviors, such as attachment, social recognition and aggression,” noted NIH Director Elias Zerhouni, M.D.. “Now, for the first time, we can literally see these same mechanisms at work in the human brain. The observed changes in the amygdala are exciting as they suggest that a long-acting analogue of oxytocin could have therapeutic value in disorders characterized by social avoidance,” added Insel.

Inspired by Swiss scientists who last summer reported [1] that oxytocin increased trust in humans, Meyer-Lindenberg and colleagues quickly mounted a brain imaging study that would explore how this works at the level of brain circuitry. British researchers had earlier linked increased amygdala activity to decreased trustworthiness. [2] Having just discovered decreased amygdala activity in response to social stimuli in people with a rare genetic brain disorder that rendered them overly trusting of others, Meyer-Lindenberg hypothesized that oxytocin boosts trust by suppressing the amygdala and its fear-processing networks.

Accalerator-20bottleTo test this idea, he asked 15 healthy men to sniff oxytocin or a placebo prior to undergoing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan, which reveals what parts of the brain that are activated by particular activities. While in the scanner, the men performed tasks known to activate the amygdala — matching angry or fearful faces and threatening scenes.

As expected, the threatening pictures triggered strong activation of the amygdala during the placebo scan, but markedly less activity following oxytocin. The difference was especially pronounced in response to threatening faces, suggesting a pivotal role for oxytocin in regulating social fear. In addition, oxytocin dampened the amygdala’s communication with sites in the upper brainstem that telegraph the fear response. The results mirrored findings in rats [3], reported earlier this year by European scientists.

“Because increased amygdala activation has been associated with social fear in social phobia, genetic risk for anxiety and depression, and possibly with social fear in autism assessed during faces processing, this dual mode of action of oxytocin in humans suggests a potentially powerful treatment approach toward socially relevant fear,” suggest the researchers.

People with autism characteristically avert their gaze from faces. A fMRI study [4] reported earlier this year by NIMH grantee Richard Davidson, Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, and colleagues, found over-activation of the amygdala in people with autism when they were looking at faces. Meyer-Lindenberg said future studies may test oxytocin as a treatment for such social anxiety symptoms in children with autism. “Future research may also examine how oxytocin affects the amygdala in women, the mode of action of related hormones such as vasopressin, and how genetic variants in these hormones and their receptors affect brain function,” he added.

Also participating in the research were: Peter Kirsch, Christin Esslinger, Daniela Mier, Stefanie Lis, Harald Gruppe, Bernd Gallhofer, Justus-Liebig University, Giessen, Germany; Qiang Chen, Sarina Siddhanti, Venkata Mattay, NIMH Genes Cognition and Psychosis Program.

Refrences: [1] Kosfeld M, Heinrichs M, Zak PJ, Fischbacher U, Fehr E. Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature. 2005 Jun 2;435(7042):673-6. [2] Winston JS, Strange BA, O’Doherty J, Dolan RJ. Automatic and intentional brain responses during evaluation of trustworthiness of faces. Nat Neurosci. 2002 Mar;5(3):277-83. [3] Huber D, Veinante P, Stoop R. Vasopressin and oxytocin excite distinct neuronal populations in the central amygdala. Science. 2005 Apr 8;308(5719):245-8. [4] Dalton KM, Nacewicz BM, Johnstone T, Schaefer HS, Gernsbacher MA, Goldsmith HH, Alexander AL, Davidson RJ. Gaze fixation and the neural circuitry of face processing in autism. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Apr;8(4):519-26. Epub 2005 Mar 6.

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